who are these armed people on the mountain? - tepav

This research encompasses 1362 PKK Terror Organization Militants who lost their lives between the years of 2001 and 2011. In this context, you can find ...
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Who are these armed people on the mountain? On any given topic, it is far easier to find data than it used to be. As researchers, our most significant task in this new environment is to transform ourselves from data collectors to data hunters. This is what we tried to achieve in this study. We proceeded to “hunt” the useful figures from the sea of data and reached some interesting conclusions. We thought that it would be a good idea to share our findings with everyone and received great interest. For instance, when we presented this information to the Human Rights Inquiry Committee of The Turkish Grand National Assembly, their reactions were quite positive. We have, of course, analyzed the data and came to conclusions of our own. But sometimes even numbers and graphs by themselves are striking enough to exhibit a situation. We chose this as our method, thinking it best for those who are interested in this issue to establish their own relations among the pieces of data. This research encompasses 1362 PKK Terror Organization Militants who lost their lives between the years of 2001 and 2011. In this context, you can find information and data about the gender, birthplace, recruitment age, place of recruitment, year of recruitment, place of death, service time in the PKK and participation ratios of Militants. Best Regards. February 2012-Ankara Dr. Nihat Ali ÖZCAN and H. Erdem GÜRKAYNAK COMMUNICATION: [email protected]

TEPAV Binası-TOBB Ekonomi ve Teknoloji Üniversitesi Yerleşkesi Söğütözü Cad.No: 43 Söğütözü-Ankara /Türkiye tel: +90. 312. 292 5500 faks: +90. 312. 292 5555 www.tepav.org.tr [email protected]

WHO ARE THESE ARMED PEOPLE ON THE MOUNTAIN? Dr. Nihat Ali ÖZCAN H.Erdem GÜRKAYNAK February 2012

 This research encompasses 1362 members of

the PKK Terrorist Organization who lost their lives due to a variety of reasons (conflict, illness, execution etc.) during the time between 26 September, 2001 and the year 2011.  Of those 1362 PKK members, 1196 are men and 166 are women.

GENDER DISTRIBUTION OF PKK MILITANTS

Women 12%

Men 88%

DISTRIBUTION OF PKK MILITANTS ACCORDING TO THEIR COUNTRY OF BIRTH

Syria 12,49% Turkey 73,31%

Iran 9,89%

Iraq 3,72%

Other 0,22%

European Countries 0,37%

GENDER DISTRIBUTION OF PKK MILITANTS ACCORDING TO THE COUNTRY OF THEIR BIRTH

70%

60%

50%

40%

Men Women

30%

20%

10%

0% Turkey

Syria

Iran

Iraq

Europe

Other

DISTRIBUTION OF PKK MILITANTS ACCORDING TO THE COUNTRY OF THEIR BIRTH ON A REGIONAL MAP

DISTRIBUTION OF PKK MILITANTS ACCORDING TO THEIR PROVINCE OF BIRTH 18% 16% 14% 12% 10% 8%

6% 4% 2% 0%

GENDER DISTRIBUTION OF MILITANTS ACCORDING TO THEIR PROVINCE OF BIRTH 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0%

Women

Men

DISTRIBUTION OF MILITANTS BY BIRTH PLACE ON THE MAP OF TURKEY

DISTRIBUTION OF PKK TERRORISTS ACCORDING TO THEIR REGION OF BIRTH 60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0% Eastern Anatolia

South East Anatolia

Mediterranean Aegean Region Region

Central Anatolia

Marmara

Black Sea

GENDER DISTRIBUTION OF PKK MILITANTS ACCORDING TO THEIR REGION OF BIRTH 50,00% 45,00% 40,00% 35,00% 30,00% 25,00% 20,00% 15,00% 10,00% 5,00% 0,00% Eastern Anatolia

South East Anatolia

Mediterranean Aegean Region Region Men

Women

Central Anatolia

Marmara

Black Sea

Age 30 and older

Age 29

Age28

Age 27

Age 26

Age 25

Age 24

Age 23

Age22

Age21

Age 20

Age 19

Age 18

Age 17

Age16

Age 15

Age 14

Age 13

Age 12 and under

DISTRIBUTION OF TERRORISTS BY RECRUITMENT AGE

16%

14%

12%

10%

8%

6%

4%

2%

0%

Men Age 29

Age28

Age 27

Age 26

Age 25

Age 24

Age 30 and older

Women Age 23

Age22

Age21

Age 20

Age 19

Age 18

Age 17

Age16

Age 15

Age 14

Age 13

Age 12 and under

GENDER DISTRIBUTION OF PKK TERRORISTS BY RECRUITMENT AGE

14%

12%

10%

8%

6%

4%

2%

0%

THE PKK AND THE PROBLEM OF CHILD SOLDIERS

Age 19 and older; 57,34%

Age 15 and under; 9,25%

Between the ages of 16 and 18; 33,41%

Age 15 and under

Between the ages of 16 and 18

Age 19 and older

AGE DISTRIBUTION OF CHILD SOLDIERS IN THE PKK

80,00% 70,00% 60,00% 50,00% Under the age of 18

40,00%

Age 18 and older 30,00% 20,00% 10,00% 0,00% Total

Men

Women

+18,-18 AGE DISTRIBUTION- WOMEN

Age 18 and older; 56,32%

Under the age of 18; 43,68%

Under the age of 18 Age 18 and older

PKK TERRORISTS’ AVERAGE AGE OF RECRUITMENT Total

19.4

Women

17.7

Men

19.6

DISTRIBUTION OF TERRORISTS ACCORDING TO THEIR COUNTRY IN WHICH THEY JOINED THE PKK

Turkey 57,13%

European Countries 8,90%

Iraq 12,70%

Other 1,24% Syria 12,28%

Iran 7,75%

GENDER DISTRIBUTION OF TERRORISTS ACCORDING TO THE COUNTRY IN WHICH THEY JOINED THE PKK 60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0% Turkey

Europe

Iraq Men

Iran Women

Syria

Other

DISTRIBUTION OF TERRORISTS ACCORDING TO THE COUNTRY IN WHICH THEY JOINED THE PKK ON A REGIONAL MAP

DISTRIBUTION OF PKK MILITANTS ACCORDING TO THEIR PROVINCE OF RECRUITMENT 20% 18% 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0%

DISTRIBUTION OF PKK TERRORIST ACCORDING TO THEIR PROVINCE OF RECRUITMENT ON THE MAP OF TURKEY

GENDER DISTRIBUTION OF PKK MILITANTS ACCORDING TO THEIR PROVINCE OF RECRUITMENT 18% 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0%

Men

Women

DISTRIBUTION OF PKK MILITANTS BY REGION OF RECRUITMENT 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Eastern Anatolia

South East Anatolia

Mediterranean Region

Aegean Region

Central Anatolia

Marmara

GENDER DISTRIBUTION OF PKK TERRORISTS ACCORDING TO THEIR REGION OF RECRUITMENT 40% 35% 30% 25% 20%

15% 10% 5% 0% Eastern Anatolia

South East Anatolia

Mediterranean Region Men

Aegean Region

Women

Central Anatolia

Marmara

PARTICIPATION RATIO BY PROVINCE

POPULATION RATIO OF PRESENT PROVINCES

ADANA

2.31%

5.31%

AĞRI

1.73%

1.39%

BATMAN

4.18%

1.28%

17.60%

3.90%

ERZURUM

1.59%

1.99%

HAKKARĠ

5.19%

0.66%

ĠSTANBUL

15.73%

33.28%

2.45%

9.97%

MARDĠN

10.82%

1.90%

MERSĠN

1.15%

4.23%

SĠĠRT

3.61%

0.78%

ġ.URFA

2.89%

4.16%

ġIRNAK

6.78%

1.11%

TUNCELĠ

3.90%

0.21%

VAN

9.81%

2.63%

10.25%

27.19%

DĠYARBAKIR

ĠZMĠR

DĠĞER

*The total population of the provinces above is 38,810,054

DISTRIBUTION OF PKK MILITANTS BY YEAR OF RECRUITMENT 25%

20%

15%

10%

5%

0%

GENDER DISTRIBUTION OF PKK MILITANTS BY YEAR OF RECRUITMENT 25%

20%

15%

10%

5%

0%

Men

Women

DISTRIBUTION OF PKK MILITANTS IN TURKEY AND ABROAD BY YEAR OF RECRUITMENT 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0%

Turkey

Abroad

DISTRIBUTION OF PKK MILITANTS ACCORDING TO THEIR COUNTRY OF DEATH

Turkey 79,42%

Iraq 17,61%

Iran 2,60% Syria 0,37%

DISTRIBUTION OF PKK MILITANTS ACCORDING TO THEIR PROVINCE OF DEATH 20% 18% 16% 14% 12% 10%

8% 6% 4% 2% 0%

DISTRIBUTION OF PKK TERRORISTS ACCORDING TO THEIR PROVINCE OF DEATH ON THE MAP OF TURKEY

%18-19

DISTRIBUTION OF PKK TERRORISTS ACCORDING TO THEIR REGION OF DEATH (IN TURKEY) 70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0% Eastern Anatolia

South East Anatolia

Mediterranean Region

Central anatolia

Marmara

Black Sea

DISTRIBUTION OF PKK TERRORISTS’ DEATHS BY YEAR 18%

16%

14%

12%

10%

8% 6% 4%

2%

0% 2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

DISTRIBUTION OF PKK TERRORISTS ACCORDING TO THEIR YEAR OF DEATH IN TURKEY AND ABROAD 16%

14%

12%

10%

8%

6%

4%

2%

0% 2001

2002

2003

2004

2005 Turkey

2006 Abroad

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

GENDER DISTRIBUTION OF PKK TERRORISTS ACCORDING TO THEIR YEAR OF DEATH 16%

14%

12%

10%

8%

6%

4%

2%

0% 2001

2002

2003

2004

2005 Men

2006 Women

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

GENDER DISTRIBUTION OF PKK TERRORISTS ACCORDING TO THEIR YEAR OF DEATH (IN TURKEY) 16%

14%

12%

10%

8%

6%

4%

2%

0% 2001

2002

2003

2004

2005 Men

2006 Women

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

DISTRIBUTION OF PKK MILITANTS ACCORDING TO THEIR YEAR OF DEATH (ABROAD) 18% 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0% 2001

2002

2003

2004

2005 Men

2006 Women

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

DISTRIBUTION OF MALE PKK TERRORISTS ACCORDING TO THEIR YEAR OF DEATH IN TURKEY AND ABROAD 16%

14%

12%

10%

8%

6%

4%

2%

0% 2001

2002

2003

2004

2005 Turkey

2006 Abroad

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

DISTRIBUTION OF FEMALE PKK MEMBERS ACCORDING TO THEIR YEAR OF DEATH IN TURKEY AND ABROAD 18% 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0% 2001

2002

2003

2004

2005 Turkey

2006 Abroad

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

DISTRIBUTION OF PKK TERRORIST DEATHS BY SEASON

Summer 35,01%

Fall 24,14%

Winter 11,62%

Spring 29,24%

DISTRIBUTION OF PKK TERRORISTS ACCORDING TO THE SEASON OF THEIR DEATH IN TURKEY AND ABROAD 30%

25%

20%

Turkey

15%

Abroad

10%

5%

0% Winter

Spring

Summer

Fall

DISTRIBUTION OF PKK TERRORISTS BY MONTH OF DEATH 14%

12%

10%

8%

6%

4%

2%

0%

DISTRIBUTION OF PKK TERRORISTS ACCORDING TO THEIR MONTH OF DEATH IN TURKEY AND ABROAD 12%

10%

8%

6%

4%

2%

0%

Turkey

Abroad

DISTRIBUTION OF TERRORISTS ACCORDING TO THEIR SERVICE TIME IN THE PKK 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2%

17 years and over

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

0-1

0%

GENDER DISTRIBUTION OF TERRORISTS ACCORDING TO THEIR SERVICE TIME IN THE PKK 12%

10%

8%

6% Men Women 4%

2%

0% 0-1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17 years and over

MILITANTS’ AVARAGE SERVICE TIME IN THE PKK BY YEAR

Total

6.9

Women

8.3

Men

6.7

DISTRIBUTION OF PKK MILITANTS BY THEIR AGE OF DEATH 12%

10%

8%

6%

4%

2%

0% Age 19 18 and under

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

Age 35 and older

GENDER DISTRIBUTION OF PKK MILITANTS ACCORDING TO THEIR AGE OF DEATH 9%

8% 7% 6% 5% 4% Men 3% 2% 1% 0%

Women

PKK MILITANTS’ AVARAGE AGE OF DEATH

Total

26.4

Women

26

Men

26.4

COMPARASION BETWEEN BIRTH PLACE AND COUNTRY OF RECRUITMENT 80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0% Turkey

Iraq

Iran Birth Place

Syria Country of Recruiment

Europe

Other

COMPRASION BETWEEN PROVINCE OF BIRTH AND PROVINCE OF RECRUITMENT (IN TURKEY) 20% 18% 16%

14% 12% 10%

8% 6% 4% 2% 0%

Birth Place

Province of Recruiment

COMPRASION BETWEEN THE YEAR OF RECRUITMENT AND DEATH 25,00%

20,00%

15,00% Recruitment Year Death Year

10,00%

5,00%

0,00% 2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

 The youngest PKK recruit was nine years

old.  The oldest PKK recruit was 42 years old.  The youngest PKK member who lost his/her life was 14 years old, as the oldest member was 48.  The longest period of membership in the PKK is 28 years.

20 18

DYB

16

IST y = 0,425x + 1,5972 R² = 0,2354

Place of recruitment

14 12 MRD 10

VAN

8 SIR

6 HAK BAT TUN SRT

4

SRF ADN AGR ERZ BTS HAT MRS KRS MUS MLT KMR GTP EZG ESK ARD BNG SVS AYD IGD ERC DZC EDR ISP TKD BLK

2 0 0

5

IZM ANK 10

15 Population Ratio

20

25

30

20 18 16

DYB IST

Place of recruitment

14 12 MRD 10

VAN

8 SIR 6 HAK BAT

4 SRF 2 0 1.000 TL

TKD

SRT

IZM ADN AGR HATMRS BTS KRS MUS GTP KMR BNG ARD MLT EZG AYD SVS IGD BLK DZC EDR ERC

1.500 TL

y = -0,0024x + 7,7215 R² = 0,12

TUN

ERZ ESK ISP

2.000 TL 2.500 TL 3.000 TL 3.500 TL Education services expenditure per person(2004-2010)

ANK 4.000 TL

4.500 TL

20 18

16

DYB IST

Place of Recruitment

14 12 MRD 10

VAN

8 SIR

6 HAK 4 2 0 0 TL

BAT SRT

TUN

SRF ADN IZM HAT AGR BTS MRS KRS MUS GTP MLTAYD KMR BNG ARDESK TKD IGD DZC BLK ERC 500 TL

y = -0,0003x + 3,0059 R² = 0,0016 ERZ SVS ISP EDR

EZG

1.000 TL 1.500 TL 2.000 TL Financial Expenses per Person (2004-2010)

ANK 2.500 TL

3.000 TL

20 18 16

DYB IST

Place of Recruitment

14 12 MRD 10

VAN

8 SIR 6 HAK BAT SRT

4 SRF IZM

ADN y = -0,0015x + 4,1914 AGR ERZ R² = 0,0089 HAT MRS BTS KRS MUS ANK GTP KMR MLT EZG BNG ARD SVS BLKDZCAYDESK IGD EDR ERC ISP

2 0 200 TL

TUN

TKD 400 TL

600 TL

800 TL 1.000 TL 1.200 TL 1.400 TL Healt Care expenses per person(2004-2010)

1.600 TL

1.800 TL

20 18

16

DYB IST

Place of Recruitment

14 12 MRD 10

VAN

8 SIR

6 HAK BAT

4 2 0 0 TL

SRF IZM ADN

AGR

HAT MRSKRS MUS GTP KMR MLT ESK ANK EZG ARD AYD SVSIGD DZC TKD BLK EDR ISP 50 TL

TUN

SRT BTS

ERZ

y = -0,009x + 3,9755 R² = 0,0353 BNG

ERC

100 TL 150 TL 200 TL 250 TL 300 TL 350 TL Social security and social assistance expenses per person(2004-2010)

400 TL

450 TL

20 18

DYB

16

IST

Place of Recruitment

14 12 MRD 10

VAN

8 SIR

y = 0,3257x - 1,1928 R² = 0,0547 HAK

6 BAT TUN

4 2

ERZ ERC

0 5

7

SRT SRF

IZM

AGR KRS ARDBLK

MLT ESK EDR TKD IGD 9

HAT MRS ANKEZG KMR GTP AYD SVS ISPBNG DZC

11 13 15 Unemployment Rate- TÜĠK 2010

ADN BTS MUS 17

19

21

20 18

DYB

16

IST

Place of Recruitment

14 12 MRD 10

VAN

8 SIR

6 HAK 4

SRT

BAT

SRF

IZMADN AGR HAT ERZ BTS MRS KRS MUS ANK GTP MLT KMR ESK EZG SVS BNG BLK AYD ARD IGD ISP DZC ERC TKD EDR

2 0 30

35

y = -0,3595x + 19,534 R² = 0,2947

TUN

40

45

50

Labor Force Participation Rate-TÜĠK 2010

55

60

20 DYB IST

Place of Recruitment

15

MRD

10

VAN

SIR HAK BAT

5 SRT

0 25

30

SRF

TUN

ADN IZM AGR ERZ BTS HAT MRS KRS MUS ANK MLT SVS ESK GTPBNGEZG KMR AYD BLK ISP IGD DZC TKD EDR ERCARD 35 40 45 50 y = -0,3786x + 18,293 R² = 0,304

-5 Employment Ratio- TÜĠK 2010

55

20% DYB 18%

16% SIR

Place of Recruitment

14% 12%

MRD

10% 8%

6%

TUN

4% 2%

y = 7E-07x + 0,005 R² = 0,3168

BTS

SRT

HAK

AGR

BAT SRF

VAN

IST

ADN MRS IZM

MUS ERZ EDR ARD MLT IGDHAT GTP 0% DZC Osm ERC ISP Ylv ESK TKD SVS Muğ Kır Ord BNG Den Sam BLK KRS EZG KMR Ant Brs Koc AYD Mns Ady Kny ANK 0 20.000 40.000 60.000

80.000

100.000

120.000

1995 Elections- HADEP Ballot

140.000

160.000

180.000

25% DYB

Place of Recruitment

20% y = 8E-07x - 0,0037 R² = 0,6478

15% MRD

IST

10% VAN TUN 5%

ERZ BAT SIR HAT SRF SRTHAK ANK ADN KMR SVS ESK KRS AGR MRS IZM DZC ERC BLK BTS AYDGTP 0% ISP EDR Ylv Osm Kır ARD TKD Muğ Sam Ord MLT Den BNG EZG Ady IGD Ant Brs Koc Kny Mns MUS 0 50.000 100.000

150.000

-5% 1999 Elections- HADEP Ballot

200.000

250.000

35% IST 30%

Place of Recruitment

25% y = 8E-07x - 0,0106 R² = 0,729 20%

15% VAN 10%

5%

MRD HAK

DYB

BAT

IZM SRT KRS BTS MRS ADN GTP SIR MLT TUN EZG HAT MUS AGR ANK SRF 0% ERC EDR ISP DZC Ylv SVS Osm Kır Ord ESK TKD Muğ Sam Den ARD BLK KMR BNG IGD Ant Brs AYD Koc Ady Kny Mns ERZ 0 50.000 100.000

150.000

200.000

-5% 2002 Elections- DEHAP Ballot

250.000

300.000

350.000

20% IST y = 8E-07x - 0,0021 R² = 0,7805 15%

Place of Recruitment

VAN MRD

DYB

10%

HAK SIR 5% IZM

SRT ADN AGR

SRF

MLT EZG BAT MUS ESK ISP HAT KMR ARD TUN AYD BTS 0% EDR Koc DZC Kır Osm SVS Mns Ord Sam Den Ylv Muğ TKD BLK ERC Kny Brs Ant Ady ANK BNG ERZ KRS IGD GTP MRS 0 50.000

100.000

150.000

-5% 2007 Elections- DTP ( Independent) Ballot

200.000

250.000

40% DYB

35%

Place of Recruitment

30%

25% y = 5E-07x - 0,0073 R² = 0,6561

20% VAN

15% SIR

10%

IST

5%

BNG TKD HAT TUN

0% 0

HAK BAT SRF SRT

EDR EZG DZC ESK ERC Ylv ISP Ord SVS Sam Osm Kır KMR Muğ MLT BLK Den ARD Kny ANK Koc Ady AYD Mns Ant Brs IGD KRS ERZ BTS GTP 50.000

AGR MUS IZM ADN MRS 100.000

MRD 150.000

200.000

250.000

300.000

-5% 2011 Elections- BDP ( Independent) Ballot

350.000

400.000

450.000